Communities of Practice are one of the leading strategies used to promote knowledge management processes aimed at generating both organisational and individual learning along with innovations that contribute to improving the public administration. The optimal design of Communities of Practice in organisations implies exhaustive knowledge of how they work, and particularly identifying and understanding the factors that determine their operation and effectiveness for organisational change. This chapter presents some of the most important results of a study conducted in two departments within the Catalan public administration. The goal of the study was to analyse knowledge management processes and propose intervention protocols and quality standards. This study enabled the authors to present proposals aimed at improving the dynamics of the Communities of Practice in the public administration and to suggest possible avenues of research focused on improving the functioning of the public sector.