The shaping of teacher accountability through cultural values in Spain. The influence of gender and other school moderators

Sáinz, Milagros, Julio Meneses, and Beatriz López. "The shaping of teacher accountability through cultural values in Spain. The influence of gender and other school moderators." In Teacher accountability: A cross-cultural approach. London: Routledge, Submitted.


Education in Spain is decentralized and the educational authorities are transferred to the 17 autonomous regions, but the state plays an important role in terms of legal regulation of the educational activities to be carried out in the different regions. Like in some other European countries, external inspections in Spain conducted by specialist inspectorates from outside the schools are increasingly based on standard principles that include an analysis focused on the results of teaching activity (Eurydice, 2008). These inspectorates report to the regional authorities responsible for education. Furthermore, teaching activity in Spain may also be monitored by means of self-evaluation. Spanish teachers thereby evaluate their own general practice in some schools (internal evaluation plan). Cultural values in Spain may help to understand the extent to which Spanish teachers perceive themselves as accountable. In this regard, the purpose of the present book chapter is twofold. The first aim will analyze the interrelationship between cultural beliefs (individualism and collectivism) and teacher accountability and how these cultural beliefs predict accountability predisposition in a group of Spanish secondary teachers. The second aim will focus on the role that some individual (gender, years of teaching experience), contextual (school support and school size) and cultural factors (individualism and collectivism) play in the prediction of teachers’ accountability disposition. A survey was conducted and answered by 318 secondary teachers (128 males and 189 females), who worked in 21 Spanish state schools. The results highlight the role that collectivism plays in the prediction of most accountability measures. However, individualism contributed to the prediction of internal accountability to professional codes. School support moderated the relation between cultural values and the prediction of external accountability