Conference papers

Fàbregues, Sergi, and Julio Meneses. "Best practices and challenges in monitoring progress towards gender equality: The case of an online university." In STEM Gender Equality Congress. Berlin, 2017. Abstractstem_gender_equality_congress_fabregues_meneses_2017.pdf

A central task of gender equality units at universities is to promote the availability of sex-disaggregated data on the composition and functioning of universities. Such data are essential to identify gender gaps and to determine which actions should be taken to address gender inequalities across university sectors (academic staff, administrative staff, students, etc.). The production of these data must be supported by a number of indicators which aim to incorporate a ‘gender lens’ in the measurement of the institutional processes occurring at universities. This presentation describes a set of gender indicators developed at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya for evaluating the success of gender interventions in three key areas: 1) Staff (composition, salary, parental leaves, etc.); 2) Academic performance (student enrollment, achievement, and dropout, etc.); and 3) Research outcomes (publications, research projects, and research team composition). It is argued that these indicators are crucial for monitoring institutional gender-related changes over time, as well as for promoting the social accountability of universities.

Rodríguez-Gómez, David, Julio Meneses, and Carme Armengol. "Digging into initial teacher training practices in Catalonia." In European Conference on Educational Research. Copenhagen, 2017. Abstractecer2017_practicum.pdfdigging_into_initial_teacher_training_practices_in_catalonia.pdf

Transferring learning into professional practice should be one of the main goals of any training programme, thus dismantling the gap between the academic and work world (Correa, 2015). The analysis of elements affecting an efficient learning transfer has been, and still is, one of the more prominent research topic in the field of both, initial and continuous training (Grover, 2015; Van den Bossche & Segers, 2013). Most of these studies point to competency-based learning and training as one of the methodological options that facilitate learning transfer (Boahin & Hofman, 2014; Grossman & Salas, 2011). In this sense, competency-based learning has become one of the central axes in the reconfiguration of the European Higher Education Area and, specifically, of the Spanish Higher Education System (Chisvert, Palomares, & Soto, 2015).

Beyond the discussion about the competences that must be developed in higher education (Freire, Álvarez, & Montes, 2013; Gilbert, Balatti, Tunner, & Whitehouse, 2004) and the identification of factors affecting their development (Velasco, 2014), from a didactic approach, the study of competency-based learning in higher education has mainly focused on the strategies and activities that facilitate their development (Biggs, 2011) and on the way they are evaluated (Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Shavelson, & Kuhn, 2015).

In the specific case of teacher training, as pointed out by Rosales (2013), competency-based learning may be a way to promote professional development throughout teachers’ career, since it would be naïve to expect that pre-service teacher training would be enough to develop each and every competence that Spanish Universities’ curricula establish In this sense, both Rodicio & Iglesias (2011) and Rosales (2013) state that the initial training should be directed to work on the competences increasingly demanded by the labour market.

Although there are several studies focusing on the importance of internships for professional competencies’ development, for the consolidation of learning (Kilgo, Sheets, & Pascarella, 2015; Tejada & Ruiz, 2013) and for the transition to working life (Helyer & Lee, 2014), in the case of initial teacher training, there is a lack of research that provides empirical evidence on the factors that lead to a better acquisition of competencies during in-school practices, internships or practicum, as well as the conditions assuring the quality of these training periods.

Thus, the aim of the study presented here is to identify factors promoting better competencies development during the in-school practices period within the Early Childhood Education and Primary Education bachelor’s degrees in Catalonia (Spain). The study focuses on the practicum organizational characteristics, the satisfaction expressed by students and the perceived impact on institutions and individuals involved in internships programmes.

Questa-Torterolo, Mariela Esther, Julio Meneses, and David Rodríguez-Gómez. "Colaboración docente: experiencias de centros educativos en Uruguay." In Fòrum Internacional d'Educació Tecnològica. Bellaterra, 2017. Abstractcolaboracion_docente_questa_meneses_rodriguez_2017.pptx

Esta comunicación presenta los resultados preliminares de un estudio de casos múltiple que se está desarrollando en centros educativos del departamento de Colonia, Uruguay. Como objetivos, se busca describir las formas en que se manifiesta la colaboración entre docentes, analizando experiencias dentro y fuera de los centros. Se procura conocer la influencia de las TIC en la labor docente, desde el punto de vista del intercambio y la concreción de actividades pedagógico-didácticas conjuntas. Participan ocho centros educativos públicos (cuatro escuelas primarias y cuatro centros de secundaria) seleccionados según datos estadísticos oficiales. Se aplicaron ochos grupos de discusión, dieciséis entrevistas en profundidad a docentes y ocho entrevistas a directores. A partir de los datos recabados en una escuela, se reconocen elementos que promueven y que distorsionan la colaboración. Como promotores, aparecen los espacios de coordinación, y las herramientas TIC para la comunicación de ideas y el trabajo en línea. La burocracia del sistema y la falta de tiempo real para concretar proyectos, se identifican como focos de desviación. A modo de conclusión inicial sobre la realidad del centro, resulta necesaria una mayor autonomía de las docentes en el espacio de coordinación, así como la promoción de la colaboración formal.

Sáinz, Milagros, Julio Meneses, Beatriz López, and Sergi Fàbregues. "Gender stereotypes and attitudes towards information and communication technology professionals in a sample of Spanish secondary students." In UOC Research Showcase 2015. Barcelona, 2015. Abstractuoc_showcase_sainz_meneses_lopez_fabregues_2015.pdf

This study examined young people’s gender-stereotyped beliefs and attitudes about people working in the field of information and communications technology (ICT). Content analysis of responses to an open-ended question indicated that the boys and girls held several stereotypical beliefs about ICT professionals (a highly male-dominated field), but they also reported counter-stereotypical beliefs about them. Contrary to expectations, most of the students’ portrayals of people working in ICT were either positive or neutral, not negative. Likewise, young males did not show more negative attitudes towards ICT professionals than girls. Most boys and girls referred to masculine role models working in ICT. But opposite to predictions, no gender differences were observed in the type of characteristics associated with ICT professionals. However, young females were more likely to offer feminine references about professions where ICT is the tool rather than the object of their work. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings within the context of Spain are discussed.

Meneses, Julio. "Recomptes, tendències i oportunitats per a la intervenció." In Jornada L'Abandonament a la UOC. Barcelona, 2015. Abstractjornada_abandonament_uoc_meneses_06-2015.pdfprog_i_present_jornada_abandonament_30062015.pdf

Organitzada pel grup d'interès sobre abandonament impulsat per l'eLC, la jornada servirà per compartir informació sobre mesura, prevenció i possibles accions en relació a l'abandonament dels estudis per part dels estudiants de la UOC.

L’acte comptarà amb benvinguda de la Christine Appel, directora de l’eLC, i la presentació institucional del Carles Sigalés, Vicerector de Docència i Aprenentatge.

Tot seguit, Julià Minguillón, responsable de recerca aplicada de l’eLC i impulsor del grup d’interès sobre abandonament, farà la introducció temàtica a una jornada que s'estructurarà en dos blocs:

Bloc 1. Mesura i Prevenció:

Recomanacions de matrícula, Nacho Beltran
Accions sobre el feedback des de la consultoria i la tutoria, MªJesús Martínez
Recomptes, tendències i oportunitats per a la intervenció, Julio Meneses

Bloc 2. Intervenció:

Enquesta als potencials abandonadors, Josep Grau
Accions de prevenció i recuperació des de la tutoria, Imma Corregidor
El projecte SAFE - Suport i Acompanyament per a la Fidelització de l’Estudiant, Roger Griset
El Datamart de l’eLC, Francesc Santanach

A més, també participarà a la jornada el professor David Rodríguez, de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, que oferirà una xerrada sobre el reingrés en el sistema universitari públic català.

Fàbregues, Sergi, and Julio Meneses. "Introducción al análisis cualitativo mediante NVivo: Fundamentos metodológicos y aplicación práctica." In Seminari metodològic del programa de doctorat en educació i TIC (e-learning) de la UOC. Barcelona (Spain), 2014. Abstractseminario_nvivo.pdf

A pesar de la consolidación que ha experimentado la metodología cualitativa en las últimas décadas, son todavía excepción los estudios que presentan de manera transparente y rigurosa los procedimientos seguidos durante el análisis de los datos cualitativos. De manera demasiado habitual, los investigadores e investigadoras cualitativos tienden a omitir esta información en sus publicaciones o, cuando lo hacen, se limitan a identificar el análisis con la mera codificación y descripción de temas y la presentación de citas literales (quotes) de los y las participantes.

Partiendo de la necesidad de hacer frente a este problema, el objetivo de este seminario es ofrecer una introducción a los fundamentos del análisis cualitativo y presentar los procedimientos básicos para su realización mediante el programa NVivo. Para ello, el seminario tomará como punto de partida una definición del análisis cualitativo que, sin dejar de reconocer la importancia de la codificación y la descripción, pone énfasis en la necesidad de considerar la búsqueda de patrones en los datos.

El seminario tiene un carácter introductorio y no es necesario un conocimiento avanzado de la metodología cualitativa. Sin embargo, se recomienda la lectura previa de alguna de las lecturas recomendadas.

Gershberg, Alec Ian, Julio Meneses, and Noe Wiener. "Institutional Factors and Teacher Characteristics Affecting Classroom Technology Use: Evidence from a nationally-representative sample in Spain." In 58th Annual Conference of the Comparative & International Education Society. Toronto, 2014. Abstractcies_presentation_3-12-14.pptx

Objectives, purposes and theoretical frameworks

The innovative use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education is still the domain of a relatively small number of teachers, especially outside the most advanced countries. We start from the premise that practices that encourage independent, collaborative and autonomous learning (Kozma & Anderson 2002) better prepare students for life in the “knowledge society” and hence should be encouraged through appropriate policy measures.We attempt to identify particular resources that innovative ICT users are drawing upon (both institutional and personal) which could potentially be made accessible to other schools and other teachers. In particular, we try to answer the question whether the contributing factors for innovative use are mainly “manipulative” or “non-manipulative” (Drent & Meelissen 2008), i.e. amenable to be influenced by schools or requiring broader policy intervention (including for instance teacher pre-service training).

Methods and Data Sources

In a first, descriptive part of the analysis, meaningful groups of teachers are formed on the basis of their reported ICT use in the classroom. We consider groups to be meaningful if they have predictive ability for other relevant behavioral or sociodemographic characteristics. In a second step, we aim to develop a parsimonious and relevant model for classifying teachers into these different groups on the basis of institutional and personal variables. Concretely, cluster analysis is employed to develop a taxonomy of teachers with regard to ICT classroom use. We distinguish between three types of ICT users based on the frequency and variety of classroom use. Discriminant analysis is then employed to predict membership in these user groups from a set of “structural” and “cultural” characteristics at both the individual and school levels. Different robustness checks are performed, in particular the regression of an index of innovative use on the same set of variables. The results are encouragingly consistent across the various model specifications and are supported by cross-validation with a holdout sample. The main data source for this study is a nationally-representative survey on teachers' attitudes, experience with, and use of new technology in Spanish primary and secondary schools (described in Sigalés et al. 2008). The stratified multi-stage sampling procedure yielded a sample of 1697 teachers, 653 of which were retained in the final analysis.

Results

The hypothesis suggested by our analysis sees access to internet and ICT resources at school as well as digital literacy for advanced internet use as the most important predictors for innovative use of ICT in education. Of slightly less importance are frequency of internet access and educational ICT training as well as positive ICT attitudes by teachers. On a more detailed level of analysis, the results suggest that the availability of networked computers in classrooms and in the school more generally, as well as easy access to programs and other software are considered helpful factors by more heavy ICT users. An important non-manipulative teacher characteristic of some importance is the ability to publish contents on the internet. Still, the nature and characteristics of teachers recruited to the profession is key.

Scholarly significance and policy implications

We conclude that infrastructure bottlenecks, which are clearly a manipulative school-level factor, might still be the appropriate locus of intervention for schools that attempt to encourage innovative ICT use. There might also be a significant payoff in refocusing some of the efforts in ICT education for teachers beyond basic computer skills on more intermediate internet and Web 2.0 competences.

References

Drent, M. & Meelissen, M. (2008). Which factors obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use ICT innovatively? Computers & Education, 51, 187–199.

Kozma, R. & Anderson, R. (2002). Qualitative case studies of innovative pedagogical practices using ICT. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18(4), 387-394.

Sigalés, C., Mominó, J. M., Meneses, J. & Badia, A. (2008). La integración de internet en la educación escolar española: situación actual y perspectivas de futuro. Informe de investigación. Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

Gershberg, Alec Ian, Julio Meneses, and Noe Wiener. "Institutional factors and teacher characteristics affecting classroom technology use: Evidence from a nationally-representative survey." In 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, 2013. Abstractaera_2013_symposium_proposal_on_technology_integration_july_23.pdfaera_presentation_4-29-13.ppt

Objectives and purposes. The innovative use of technologies in education is still the domain of a relatively small number of teachers, especially outside the most advanced countries. We start from the premise that practices that encourage independent, collaborative and autonomous learning (Kozma & Anderson 2002) better prepare students for life in the “knowledge society” and hence should be encouraged through appropriate policy measures. On the basis of nationally-representative Spanish survey data on teachers' attitudes, experience with, and use of new technology, we attempt to identify particular resources that innovative technology users are drawing upon.

Theoretical frameworks. In particular, we try to answer the question whether the contributing factors for innovative use are mainly “manipulative” or “non-manipulative” (Drent & Meelissen 2008), i.e. amenable to be influenced by schools or requiring broader policy intervention.

Method. In a first descriptive part of the analysis, meaningful groups of teachers are formed on the basis of their reported technology use in the classroom. In a second step, we aim to develop a parsimonious and relevant model for classifying teachers into these different groups on the basis of institutional and individual variables. Concretely, cluster analysis is employed to develop a taxonomy of teachers with regard to technology classroom use. We distinguish between three types of technology users based on the frequency and variety of classroom use. Discriminant analysis is then employed to predict membership in these user groups from a set of “structural” and “cultural” characteristics at both the individual and school levels. Different robustness checks are performed, in particular the regression of an index of innovative use on the same set of variables.

Data sources and evidence. Data is based on a nationally-representative survey on teachers' attitudes, experience with, and use of new technology in Spanish primary and secondary schools (Sigalés et al. 2008). The stratified multi-stage sampling procedure yielded a sample of 1697 teachers, 653 of which were retained in our final analysis.

Results. The hypothesis suggested by our analysis sees access to internet and technology resources at school as well as digital literacy for advanced internet use as the most important predictors for innovative use of technology in education. Of slightly less importance are frequency of internet access and educational technology training as well as positive technology attitudes by teachers. On a more detailed level of analysis, the results suggest that the availability of networked computers in classrooms, as well as easy access to programs and other software are considered helpful factors by more heavy technology users. An important non-manipulative teacher characteristic of some importance is the ability to publish contents on the internet.

Scientific and scholarly significance. We conclude that infrastructure bottlenecks, which are clearly a manipulative school-level factor, might still be the appropriate locus of intervention for schools that attempt to encourage innovative technology use. There might also be a significant payoff in refocusing some of the efforts in education for teachers beyond basic computer skills on more intermediate internet and Web 2.0 competences.

Badia, Antoni, Consuelo García, and Julio Meneses. "Factors influencing university instructors’ adoption of the conception of online teaching as a medium to promote learners’ collaboration in virtual learning environments." In 4th World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to build a model of the factors that influence the university instructors’ adoption of the conception of online teaching named “promoting the learners’ collaboration in virtual learning environments”. We conducted a survey to nine hundred sixty-five higher education online instructors belonging to the Open University of Catalonia (www.uoc.edu). In this study we used three scales selected from a larger questionnaire that collected three types of information from the instructors: personal and professional data, online teaching roles, and online teaching conceptions. We identified several conceptions about online teaching through a factorial analysis from the third scale. In the present research we analyze the relationship between the instructors’ conception about teaching as a medium to promote learners’ collaboration (independent variable), and possible explanatory variables: gender, age, academic education, field of specialization, experience in online teaching, level of teaching, time devoted to online teaching, and instructors’ perceived relevance of their online teaching roles. Correlations and preliminary multiple regression analyses were used to make inferential judgements and test the effects of the independent variable separately. Findings from correlation analysis suggest that gender, academic education, online teaching experience, time devoted to online teaching, and, more relevant, all five teaching roles: social interaction, instructional design, technology use, learning assessment and learning processes support, are relevant predictors of the adoption of this conception of teaching by online instructors.

Badia, Antoni, Julio Meneses, Carles Sigalés, and Sergi Fàbregues. "Factors affecting school teachers’ perceptions of the instructional benefits of digital technology." In 4th World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstractppoint_wclta_2013_vfinal.ppt

The potential benefits of digital technology for teaching and learning in schools have been extensively characterized in the academic literature. However, little is known about the factors that affect teachers’ perceptions of these benefits. This state of affairs is problematic since we know that teachers’ perceptions have an impact on their teaching practices. The ultimate aim of this study was to develop and test a model of the factors affecting primary and secondary school teachers’ perceptions about the instructional benefits of digital technology in their teaching practices. Instructional benefits are defined here as the contribution of digital technology in several aspects of curriculum development such as the formulation of learning goals, the development of curriculum content and learning activities, the allocation of educational resources, and the adoption of new methods of assessment. This study used survey data gathered from 702 teachers from a sample of 356 primary and secondary schools in Spain. The study aimed at exploring the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of using digital technology for curriculum development and individual and school-level conditions. Correlation analyses examined the relationship between overall variables and teachers’ perceptions. Several significant relations were identified. Preliminary findings suggest that factors such as teaching area, digital literacy, educational ICT training, and Internet access are important predictors of teachers’ perceptions of the instructional benefits of digital technology. The outcomes of the study will help schools and teachers to enhance the use of digital technology in their teaching and learning practices.

Sáinz, Milagros, Julio Meneses, and Beatriz López. "La brecha de género en las aspiraciones académico-profesionales de los estudiantes de secundaria." In I Congreso Internacional de Ciencias de la Educación y del Desarrollo. Santander (Spain), 2013. Abstractsainz_meneses_lopez_2013.pdfactas_santander2013.pdf

Las diferencias de género en la elección de estudios en secundaria ha sido constatada por numerosos estudios empíricos a lo largo de los últimos años tanto a nivel nacional como internacional. A pesar de la presencia mayoritaria de las chicas en las carreras universitarias, estas siguen estando infrarrepresentadas en las carreras tecnológicas. Asimismo, los chicos están infrarrepresentados en carreras vinculadas a los cuidados y la educación -especialmente en el ámbito de la educación primaria-. Estas diferencias de género en la elección de estudios emergen durante los últimos cursos de la educación secundaria, cuando los adolescentes tienen que decantarse por unos itinerarios académicos en detrimento de otros. En este sentido, el objetivo de esta investigación consiste en analizar con perspectiva de género el papel que juegan la percepción de competencia y las notas en áreas centrales del currículum de secundaria en la futura elección de estudios. La muestra está compuesta por 807 estudiantes de segundo de la ESO (48% de chicas) procedentes de 10 centros de secundaria públicos de las áreas metropolitanas de Madrid y Barcelona. Los resultados de la primera recogida de datos de este estudio longitudinal muestran diferencias de género en el tipo de estudios que los estudiantes se plantean realizar en un futuro cercano. Asimismo, la brecha de género se produce en mayor medida en la percepción de competencia y no tanto en las notas. Cuando se tiene en cuenta el área de conocimiento dentro del cual se encuentran los estudios que se plantean realizar, los interesados por el ámbito de las ciencias experimentales y de la salud muestran mejores notas y mayor habilidad percibida en todas las materias de segundo de la ESO.

Fàbregues, Sergi, Julio Meneses, David Rodríguez-Gómez, and Georgeta Ion. "What factors affect teachers' professional use of ICT outside the classroom? Evidence from Spain." In First UOC International Research Symposium. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstractuoc_sym_professional_use_of_ict_2013.pdf

Background: In the recent years there has been wide interest in the implementation of the ICT in educational institutions. Most of the research conducted to date on this topic highlights how ICTs reconfigure classroom practice, create new variety of learning practices, and improve students’ engagement and outcomes, among others. While these studies mainly focus on the use of ICT in teaching and learning, little is known about the factors influencing the use of ICT as a professional tool outside the classroom.

Objective: To develop and test a model of the factors influencing teachers' professional use of ICT, particularly the internet, outside the classroom.

Method: This study was conducted as part of the project "Integration of the Internet in Spanish school education: The current situation and prospects for the future" funded by the Telefónica Foundation. One thousand four hundreds and five (1,405) teachers from a random, representative sample of 536 primary and 273 secondary schools in Spain were surveyed. The dependent variables included the attitudes towards professional uses of ICT and the use of the Internet in professional practice. The explanatory variables were socio-demographic characteristics, school-level attributes, school Internet access, educational ICT training, digital literacy and organisational development. Multiple regression analyses were performed.

Findings: Organisational development and technological measures (e.g. digital literacy, educational ICT training and Internet access in the school) favour positive attitudes towards the educational use of ICT. Both variables are also important predictors of ICT appropriation for professional purposes. Furthermore, findings indicate that schools that modify its organisational context (e.g. approaches, structures, relations and procedures) also promote digital practices. Further research is needed to understand the unequal distribution of teachers' opportunities to cope with the obstacles and challenges of ICT integration in their professional practice outside the classroom.

Sáinz, Milagros, and Julio Meneses. "Gendered paths in secondary students' expectancies about STEM studies." In First UOC International Research Symposium. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstractuoc_sym_sainz_meneses_gendered_paths_2013.pdf

Background. The dearth of women is particularly low in engineering and physical science, whereas they make up half of the enrollments in other science and biology‐related fields. The theory of expectancy‐value of achievement related choices explains young people’s gendered academic choices and performance (Eccles‐Parsons et al, 1983; Wigfield and Eccles, 2000). Young girls are therefore more likely to enroll in courses and studies that they think they can master and that have a high task value for them.

Objectives. The present longitudinal study aims at analyzing secondary students’ interest in STEM studies from a gender perspective.

Method. The longitudinal sample consisted of 529 students enrolled in the second (14 years; time 1) and third courses (15 years; time 2) of compulsory secondary school. 51% were girls. 53% come from intermediate households. 77% are Spanish. A survey was administered with questions about sociodemographics, as well as performance in all subject areas, students’ self‐concept of ability and perception of utility in the two time points, and future study choices. STEM studies were divided into technology and experimental/health science (MEC, 2013).

Results. Logistic regressions revealed that young females and students reporting high self‐concept of ability in math and natural science and high performance in Spanish at time 1 were more likely to pursue experimental and health studies at time 2. Similarly, young males and students with high self‐concept of ability in technology and low performance in natural sciences at time 1 were more likely to pursue technological studies at time 2. In addition, students with high utility value of technology and natural science at time 1 were more likely to pursue experimental and health studies at time 2.

Conclusions. These findings have important educational implications and suggest that the structure of the educational system in Spain shapes students’ gendered aspirations in STEM.

Badia, Antoni, Julio Meneses, Sergi Fàbregues, and Carles Sigalés. "Examining the influence of ICT-related school and teacher conditions in teachers' perceived effectiveness of digital technology." In First UOC International Research Symposium. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstractuoc_sym_ict-related-factors_2013.pdf

Background. Little is known about the factors that affect teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of technology for teaching and learning in schools. This state of affairs is problematic since we know that teachers’ perceptions have a high impact on their teaching practices. Instructional benefits are defined here as the contribution of digital technology in several aspects of curriculum development such as the formulation of learning goals, the development of curriculum content and learning activities, the allocation of educational resources, and the adoption of new methods of assessment.

Objective. To develop and test a model of the factors affecting primary and secondary school teachers’ perceptions about the instructional benefits of digital technology in their teaching practices.

Method. This study used survey data gathered from 702 teachers from 356 primary and secondary schools in Spain. A three stage hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed, testing for separate effects and controlling for the other variables included in the model, to assess the contribution of socio-demographic and school-level information, ICT-related school conditions, and ICT-related teacher conditions.

Findings. Hierarchical multiple regression of teachers’ perceived effectiveness of digital technology shows that: a) the teaching area is the only contributing factor among the socio-demographics and the school-level information measures considered; b) ICT-related school conditions (i.e., ICT policy, ICT infrastructure, computer to student ratio, and ICT support) do not improve the explained variance of the model; c) ICT-related teacher conditions (i.e., digital literacy, education ICT training, and frequency of Internet access) are the best predictors among the measures included.

Conclusions. These findings suggest that an increase of ICT knowledge and use within each teaching area would make teachers perceiving more educational benefits associated to technology.

Meneses, Julio, and Sergi Fàbregues. "Introducción al análisis multivariante con SPSS." In Seminari metodològic del programa de doctorat en educació i TIC (e-learning) de la UOC. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstractseminari_multivariante_2013.pdf

1. Un ejemplo: el uso del debate en la UOC
2. ¿Qué es el análisis multivariante?
3. Univariante, bivariante y multivariante
4. Tipos de análisis multivariante
5. La elección de la técnica multivariante
6. Principios del análisis multivariante
7. Diseño de una investigación multivariante
8. Ejecución del análisis multivariante
9. Bibliografia sobre análisis multivariante
10. Un consejo final