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2015
Meneses, Julio. Internet, escola i comunitat en el trànsit cap a la societat xarxa. La incorporació d'internet al sistema educatiu de Catalunya per al desenvolupament comunitari, Edited by Josep Maria Mominó. Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2015. Abstractinternet_escola_i_comunitat_meneses.pdf

Tesi per compendi de publicacions defendida en el programa de doctorat de Societat de la Informació i el Coneixement de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

Durant els darrers anys, hi ha hagut un gran interès en el procés d’introducció de les tecnologies de la informació i de la comunicació (TIC) a les escoles. Tot i que la majoria dels esforços s’han dirigit a l’estudi de la seva incorporació als processos d’ensenyament i aprenentatge com a eines per facilitar l’accés, la gestió i el processament de la informació, la investigació no ha parat prou atenció a la forma en què les TIC promouen i donen suport a la interacció social i el desenvolupament comunitari. Adoptant una perspectiva comunitària, aquesta tesi doctoral estudia la incorporació de les TIC, i particularment d’internet, a l’organització de l’activitat quotidiana i el funcionament de les aules i escoles, tenint en compte les relacions entre els estudiants i els professors, les formes de col·laboració del professorat, la participació dels diferents col·lectius en la gestió dels centres i l’obertura de l’escola a les famílies, altres professionals i la comunitat local. Amb aquest propòsit, la tesi s’estructura a partir d’un compendi de publicacions desenvolupades en el marc dels projectes d’investigació “L’escola a la societat xarxa: internet a l’educació primària i secundària” i “La integración de internet en la educación escolar española: situación actual y perspectivas de futuro”.

La tesi es divideix en tres parts. La primera serveix com a introducció general als treballs que formen part del compendi i presenta el context general en què s’ha dut a terme la investigació. A continuació, una discussió sobre el paper de la tecnologia en l’educació escolar serveix com a punt de partida per desenvolupar una perspectiva comunitària basada en la teoria del capital social i en l’enfocament de la desigualtat digital per estudiar la incorporació d’internet a l’activitat quotidiana dels estudiants, els professors i els directors a les aules i escoles. Una revisió de la literatura proporciona el marc de referència necessari per a la formulació dels objectius i les preguntes d’investigació. D’una banda, aborda la investigació portada a terme sobre la importància dels aspectes socials i comunitaris en el marc dels estudis sobre la qualitat en l’educació i presenta les diferents perspectives que, de manera particular, han estudiat el desenvolupament comunitari en l’educació escolar. De l’altra, la revisió de la literatura examina la investigació portada a terme en el marc dels estudis d’internet i, prenent com a referència els estudis socials de la tecnologia, la caracteritza com un nou camp d’investigació interessat en les relacions entre la tecnologia i la societat que s’ocupa, de manera particular, dels aspectes socials i culturals relacionats amb la incorporació d’internet a l’activitat quotidiana. La descripció de la metodologia de la investigació dóna pas, finalment, a una presentació dels treballs que formen part del compendi de publicacions.

La segona part reprodueix aquests articles. La tercera, a continuació, serveix com a discussió general de la investigació. Començant amb un resum dels principals resultats obtinguts, aquesta discussió els relaciona amb les qüestions plantejades en la introducció general, en descriu les limitacions més importants i suggereix algunes línies futures d’investigació. Aquesta discussió, a més a més, ofereix algunes implicacions importants que es poden extreure de la perspectiva comunitària desenvolupada per abordar la incorporació d’internet a l’activitat quotidiana escolar. També incorpora algunes recomanacions generals per a la pràctica i, finalment, presenta les conclusions generals de la investigació. En darrer terme, aquesta investigació mostra el sistema educatiu de Catalunya com un sistema poc connectat, on la incorporació d’internet no sembla respondre a una revolució en les pràctiques comunitàries, així com un sistema que sembla jugar un paper secundari en la promoció de la inclusió digital dels nens i joves en la nostra societat.

Meneses, Julio, and Josep M. Mominó. "Online community building in classrooms and schools: Using the internet to extend teachers’ face-to-face community practices." Educar 51, no. 2 (2015): 417-440. Abstract727-2040-2-pb.pdfWebsite

Using a digital inequality approach, this study analyses the introduction of the internet into teachers’ daily activity in order to support and enhance community building in classrooms and schools. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-three (2,163) teachers from a representative sample of 350 schools offering compulsory and post-compulsory education in Catalonia (Spain) were surveyed. After controlling for school and socio-demographic characteristics, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the effects of face-to-face community building and digital literacy. The article analyses their main and interaction effects and discusses the implications of the observed patterns in relation to the introduction of the internet in order to extend and reinforce teachers’ face-to-face teaching and professional practices. Going beyond the technological promise, our findings suggest the opportunity to encourage agreement between teachers, school administrators, and policy makers on the importance of a community approach that recognises the value of communication and collaboration as successful means of addressing the educational challenges of schooling.

Badia, Antoni, Julio Meneses, and Consuelo García. "Technology use for teaching and learning." Píxel-Bit, Revista de Medios y Educación 46 (2015): 9-24. Abstractpixel-bit_2015_badia.pdfWebsite

Our main aim is to categorise the different uses teachers and students make of ICT as a teaching and learning tool in technology-rich classrooms. A questionnaire about possible uses was developed following the guidelines provided by the literature review. A sample of teachers (n=278) who teach in highly technological classrooms participated in the study. Four types of educational ICT use in the classroom turned out of the exploratory factor analysis: teachers' technology use of content, teachers' technology use of interaction, students' technology use of content, and students' technology use of interaction. Useful ideas for researchers and teachers are provided.

2014
Fàbregues, Sergi, and Julio Meneses. "Introducción al análisis cualitativo mediante NVivo: Fundamentos metodológicos y aplicación práctica." In Seminari metodològic del programa de doctorat en educació i TIC (e-learning) de la UOC. Barcelona (Spain), 2014. Abstractseminario_nvivo.pdf

A pesar de la consolidación que ha experimentado la metodología cualitativa en las últimas décadas, son todavía excepción los estudios que presentan de manera transparente y rigurosa los procedimientos seguidos durante el análisis de los datos cualitativos. De manera demasiado habitual, los investigadores e investigadoras cualitativos tienden a omitir esta información en sus publicaciones o, cuando lo hacen, se limitan a identificar el análisis con la mera codificación y descripción de temas y la presentación de citas literales (quotes) de los y las participantes.

Partiendo de la necesidad de hacer frente a este problema, el objetivo de este seminario es ofrecer una introducción a los fundamentos del análisis cualitativo y presentar los procedimientos básicos para su realización mediante el programa NVivo. Para ello, el seminario tomará como punto de partida una definición del análisis cualitativo que, sin dejar de reconocer la importancia de la codificación y la descripción, pone énfasis en la necesidad de considerar la búsqueda de patrones en los datos.

El seminario tiene un carácter introductorio y no es necesario un conocimiento avanzado de la metodología cualitativa. Sin embargo, se recomienda la lectura previa de alguna de las lecturas recomendadas.

Gershberg, Alec Ian, Julio Meneses, and Noe Wiener. "Institutional Factors and Teacher Characteristics Affecting Classroom Technology Use: Evidence from a nationally-representative sample in Spain." In 58th Annual Conference of the Comparative & International Education Society. Toronto, 2014. Abstractcies_presentation_3-12-14.pptx

Objectives, purposes and theoretical frameworks

The innovative use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education is still the domain of a relatively small number of teachers, especially outside the most advanced countries. We start from the premise that practices that encourage independent, collaborative and autonomous learning (Kozma & Anderson 2002) better prepare students for life in the “knowledge society” and hence should be encouraged through appropriate policy measures.We attempt to identify particular resources that innovative ICT users are drawing upon (both institutional and personal) which could potentially be made accessible to other schools and other teachers. In particular, we try to answer the question whether the contributing factors for innovative use are mainly “manipulative” or “non-manipulative” (Drent & Meelissen 2008), i.e. amenable to be influenced by schools or requiring broader policy intervention (including for instance teacher pre-service training).

Methods and Data Sources

In a first, descriptive part of the analysis, meaningful groups of teachers are formed on the basis of their reported ICT use in the classroom. We consider groups to be meaningful if they have predictive ability for other relevant behavioral or sociodemographic characteristics. In a second step, we aim to develop a parsimonious and relevant model for classifying teachers into these different groups on the basis of institutional and personal variables. Concretely, cluster analysis is employed to develop a taxonomy of teachers with regard to ICT classroom use. We distinguish between three types of ICT users based on the frequency and variety of classroom use. Discriminant analysis is then employed to predict membership in these user groups from a set of “structural” and “cultural” characteristics at both the individual and school levels. Different robustness checks are performed, in particular the regression of an index of innovative use on the same set of variables. The results are encouragingly consistent across the various model specifications and are supported by cross-validation with a holdout sample. The main data source for this study is a nationally-representative survey on teachers' attitudes, experience with, and use of new technology in Spanish primary and secondary schools (described in Sigalés et al. 2008). The stratified multi-stage sampling procedure yielded a sample of 1697 teachers, 653 of which were retained in the final analysis.

Results

The hypothesis suggested by our analysis sees access to internet and ICT resources at school as well as digital literacy for advanced internet use as the most important predictors for innovative use of ICT in education. Of slightly less importance are frequency of internet access and educational ICT training as well as positive ICT attitudes by teachers. On a more detailed level of analysis, the results suggest that the availability of networked computers in classrooms and in the school more generally, as well as easy access to programs and other software are considered helpful factors by more heavy ICT users. An important non-manipulative teacher characteristic of some importance is the ability to publish contents on the internet. Still, the nature and characteristics of teachers recruited to the profession is key.

Scholarly significance and policy implications

We conclude that infrastructure bottlenecks, which are clearly a manipulative school-level factor, might still be the appropriate locus of intervention for schools that attempt to encourage innovative ICT use. There might also be a significant payoff in refocusing some of the efforts in ICT education for teachers beyond basic computer skills on more intermediate internet and Web 2.0 competences.

References

Drent, M. & Meelissen, M. (2008). Which factors obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use ICT innovatively? Computers & Education, 51, 187–199.

Kozma, R. & Anderson, R. (2002). Qualitative case studies of innovative pedagogical practices using ICT. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18(4), 387-394.

Sigalés, C., Mominó, J. M., Meneses, J. & Badia, A. (2008). La integración de internet en la educación escolar española: situación actual y perspectivas de futuro. Informe de investigación. Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

Badia, Antoni, Julio Meneses, and Carles Monereo. "Affective dimension of university professors about their teaching: An exploration through the semantic differential technique." Universitas Psychologica 13, no. 1 (2014): 161-173. Abstract1912-33810-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The main objective of this study is to increase our knowledge of teacher feelings about teaching, as a component of teacher identity. In the first part, we present a comprehensive review of the literature about teachers’ feelings, especially in the area of types of teacher feelings and teaching. In the second part, we present the results of a semantic differential scale developed to identify a typology of teaching feelings in higher education. This comprises a list of pairs of bipolar adjectives that summarize a broad range of feelings that teachers may feel. This semantic differential was presented to a sample of 198 university teachers, and an exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure of feelings about teaching in higher education: Feelings related the motivation for teaching, feelings related the evaluation of oneself as a teacher, and feelings related the performance of teaching. Our results suggest a new line of research about teacher feelings and teacher identity in higher education.

Badia, Antoni, Julio Meneses, Carles Sigalés, and Sergi Fàbregues. "Factors affecting school teachers’ perceptions of the instructional benefits of digital technology." Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 141 (2014): 357-362. Abstractprocedia_2014_01.pdfWebsite

The potential benefits of digital technology for teaching and learning in schools have been extensively characterized in the academic literature. However, little is known about the factors that affect teachers’ perceptions of these benefits. This state of affairs is problematic since we know that teachers’ perceptions have an impact on their teaching practices. The ultimate aim of this study was to develop and test a model of the factors affecting primary and secondary school teachers’ perceptions about the instructional benefits of digital technology in their teaching practices. Instructional benefits are defined here as the contribution of digital technology in several aspects of curriculum development such as the formulation of learning goals, the development of curriculum content and learning activities, the allocation of educational resources, and the adoption of new methods of assessment. This study used survey data gathered from 702 teachers from a sample of 356 primary and secondary schools in Spain. The study aimed at exploring the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of using digital technology for curriculum development and individual and school-level conditions. Correlation analyses examined the relationship between overall variables and teachers’ perceptions. Several significant relations were identified. Preliminary findings suggest that factors such as teaching area, digital literacy, educational ICT training, and Internet access are important predictors of teachers’ perceptions of the instructional benefits of digital technology. The outcomes of the study will help schools and teachers to enhance the use of digital technology in their teaching and learning practices.

Badia, Antoni, Consuelo García, and Julio Meneses. "Factors influencing university instructors’ adoption of the conception of online teaching as a medium to promote learners’ collaboration in virtual learning environments." Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 141 (2014): 369-374. Abstractprocedia_2014_02.pdfWebsite

The purpose of the study was to build a model of the factors that influence the university instructors’ adoption of the conception of online teaching named “promoting the learners’ collaboration in virtual learning environments”. We conducted a survey to nine hundred sixty-five higher education online instructors belonging to the Open University of Catalonia (www.uoc.edu). In this study we used three scales selected from a larger questionnaire that collected three types of information from the instructors: personal and professional data, online teaching roles, and online teaching conceptions. We identified several conceptions about online teaching through a factorial analysis from the third scale. In the present research we analyze the relationship between the instructors’ conception about teaching as a medium to promote learners’ collaboration (independent variable), and possible explanatory variables: gender, age, academic education, field of specialization, experience in online teaching, level of teaching, time devoted to online teaching, and instructors’ perceived relevance of their online teaching roles. Correlations and preliminary multiple regression analyses were used to make inferential judgements and test the effects of the independent variable separately. Findings from correlation analysis suggest that gender, academic education, online teaching experience, time devoted to online teaching, and, more relevant, all five teaching roles: social interaction, instructional design, technology use, learning assessment and learning processes support, are relevant predictors of the adoption of this conception of teaching by online instructors.

Meneses, Julio, Sergi Fàbregues, Judith Jacovkis, and David Rodríguez-Gómez. "La introducción de las TIC en el sistema educativo español (2000-2010): Un análisis comparado de las políticas autonómicas desde una perspectiva multinivel." Estudios sobre Educación (ESE) 27 (2014): 63-90. Abstractestudios_sobre_educacion_2014_meneses.pdfWebsite

La convergencia de políticas para la introducción de las TIC en las escuelas españolas supone un reto al tener que considerar diferentes regulaciones, presupuestos y calendarios autonómicos. El propósito de este artículo es examinar las políticas autonómicas de introducción de las TIC en los centros educativos de España. El estudio utiliza un modelo de análisis comparado que considera: racionalidades políticas y planes de acción. El análisis evidencia que España representa un buen ejemplo de introducción desordenada de las TIC, con un claro acento en la dotación de infraestructuras y una menor atención a las necesidades y capacidades del contexto educativo.

2013
Sáinz, Milagros, Julio Meneses, and Beatriz López. "La brecha de género en las aspiraciones académico-profesionales de los estudiantes de secundaria." In I Congreso Internacional de Ciencias de la Educación y del Desarrollo. Santander (Spain), 2013. Abstractsainz_meneses_lopez_2013.pdfactas_santander2013.pdf

Las diferencias de género en la elección de estudios en secundaria ha sido constatada por numerosos estudios empíricos a lo largo de los últimos años tanto a nivel nacional como internacional. A pesar de la presencia mayoritaria de las chicas en las carreras universitarias, estas siguen estando infrarrepresentadas en las carreras tecnológicas. Asimismo, los chicos están infrarrepresentados en carreras vinculadas a los cuidados y la educación -especialmente en el ámbito de la educación primaria-. Estas diferencias de género en la elección de estudios emergen durante los últimos cursos de la educación secundaria, cuando los adolescentes tienen que decantarse por unos itinerarios académicos en detrimento de otros. En este sentido, el objetivo de esta investigación consiste en analizar con perspectiva de género el papel que juegan la percepción de competencia y las notas en áreas centrales del currículum de secundaria en la futura elección de estudios. La muestra está compuesta por 807 estudiantes de segundo de la ESO (48% de chicas) procedentes de 10 centros de secundaria públicos de las áreas metropolitanas de Madrid y Barcelona. Los resultados de la primera recogida de datos de este estudio longitudinal muestran diferencias de género en el tipo de estudios que los estudiantes se plantean realizar en un futuro cercano. Asimismo, la brecha de género se produce en mayor medida en la percepción de competencia y no tanto en las notas. Cuando se tiene en cuenta el área de conocimiento dentro del cual se encuentran los estudios que se plantean realizar, los interesados por el ámbito de las ciencias experimentales y de la salud muestran mejores notas y mayor habilidad percibida en todas las materias de segundo de la ESO.

Meneses, Julio, and Sergi Fàbregues. "Introducción al análisis multivariante con SPSS." In Seminari metodològic del programa de doctorat en educació i TIC (e-learning) de la UOC. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstractseminari_multivariante_2013.pdf

1. Un ejemplo: el uso del debate en la UOC
2. ¿Qué es el análisis multivariante?
3. Univariante, bivariante y multivariante
4. Tipos de análisis multivariante
5. La elección de la técnica multivariante
6. Principios del análisis multivariante
7. Diseño de una investigación multivariante
8. Ejecución del análisis multivariante
9. Bibliografia sobre análisis multivariante
10. Un consejo final

Gershberg, Alec Ian, Julio Meneses, and Noe Wiener. "Institutional factors and teacher characteristics affecting classroom technology use: Evidence from a nationally-representative survey." In 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, 2013. Abstractaera_2013_symposium_proposal_on_technology_integration_july_23.pdfaera_presentation_4-29-13.ppt

Objectives and purposes. The innovative use of technologies in education is still the domain of a relatively small number of teachers, especially outside the most advanced countries. We start from the premise that practices that encourage independent, collaborative and autonomous learning (Kozma & Anderson 2002) better prepare students for life in the “knowledge society” and hence should be encouraged through appropriate policy measures. On the basis of nationally-representative Spanish survey data on teachers' attitudes, experience with, and use of new technology, we attempt to identify particular resources that innovative technology users are drawing upon.

Theoretical frameworks. In particular, we try to answer the question whether the contributing factors for innovative use are mainly “manipulative” or “non-manipulative” (Drent & Meelissen 2008), i.e. amenable to be influenced by schools or requiring broader policy intervention.

Method. In a first descriptive part of the analysis, meaningful groups of teachers are formed on the basis of their reported technology use in the classroom. In a second step, we aim to develop a parsimonious and relevant model for classifying teachers into these different groups on the basis of institutional and individual variables. Concretely, cluster analysis is employed to develop a taxonomy of teachers with regard to technology classroom use. We distinguish between three types of technology users based on the frequency and variety of classroom use. Discriminant analysis is then employed to predict membership in these user groups from a set of “structural” and “cultural” characteristics at both the individual and school levels. Different robustness checks are performed, in particular the regression of an index of innovative use on the same set of variables.

Data sources and evidence. Data is based on a nationally-representative survey on teachers' attitudes, experience with, and use of new technology in Spanish primary and secondary schools (Sigalés et al. 2008). The stratified multi-stage sampling procedure yielded a sample of 1697 teachers, 653 of which were retained in our final analysis.

Results. The hypothesis suggested by our analysis sees access to internet and technology resources at school as well as digital literacy for advanced internet use as the most important predictors for innovative use of technology in education. Of slightly less importance are frequency of internet access and educational technology training as well as positive technology attitudes by teachers. On a more detailed level of analysis, the results suggest that the availability of networked computers in classrooms, as well as easy access to programs and other software are considered helpful factors by more heavy technology users. An important non-manipulative teacher characteristic of some importance is the ability to publish contents on the internet.

Scientific and scholarly significance. We conclude that infrastructure bottlenecks, which are clearly a manipulative school-level factor, might still be the appropriate locus of intervention for schools that attempt to encourage innovative technology use. There might also be a significant payoff in refocusing some of the efforts in education for teachers beyond basic computer skills on more intermediate internet and Web 2.0 competences.

Badia, Antoni, Julio Meneses, Carles Sigalés, and Sergi Fàbregues. "Factors affecting school teachers’ perceptions of the instructional benefits of digital technology." In 4th World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstractppoint_wclta_2013_vfinal.ppt

The potential benefits of digital technology for teaching and learning in schools have been extensively characterized in the academic literature. However, little is known about the factors that affect teachers’ perceptions of these benefits. This state of affairs is problematic since we know that teachers’ perceptions have an impact on their teaching practices. The ultimate aim of this study was to develop and test a model of the factors affecting primary and secondary school teachers’ perceptions about the instructional benefits of digital technology in their teaching practices. Instructional benefits are defined here as the contribution of digital technology in several aspects of curriculum development such as the formulation of learning goals, the development of curriculum content and learning activities, the allocation of educational resources, and the adoption of new methods of assessment. This study used survey data gathered from 702 teachers from a sample of 356 primary and secondary schools in Spain. The study aimed at exploring the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of using digital technology for curriculum development and individual and school-level conditions. Correlation analyses examined the relationship between overall variables and teachers’ perceptions. Several significant relations were identified. Preliminary findings suggest that factors such as teaching area, digital literacy, educational ICT training, and Internet access are important predictors of teachers’ perceptions of the instructional benefits of digital technology. The outcomes of the study will help schools and teachers to enhance the use of digital technology in their teaching and learning practices.

Badia, Antoni, Consuelo García, and Julio Meneses. "Factors influencing university instructors’ adoption of the conception of online teaching as a medium to promote learners’ collaboration in virtual learning environments." In 4th World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to build a model of the factors that influence the university instructors’ adoption of the conception of online teaching named “promoting the learners’ collaboration in virtual learning environments”. We conducted a survey to nine hundred sixty-five higher education online instructors belonging to the Open University of Catalonia (www.uoc.edu). In this study we used three scales selected from a larger questionnaire that collected three types of information from the instructors: personal and professional data, online teaching roles, and online teaching conceptions. We identified several conceptions about online teaching through a factorial analysis from the third scale. In the present research we analyze the relationship between the instructors’ conception about teaching as a medium to promote learners’ collaboration (independent variable), and possible explanatory variables: gender, age, academic education, field of specialization, experience in online teaching, level of teaching, time devoted to online teaching, and instructors’ perceived relevance of their online teaching roles. Correlations and preliminary multiple regression analyses were used to make inferential judgements and test the effects of the independent variable separately. Findings from correlation analysis suggest that gender, academic education, online teaching experience, time devoted to online teaching, and, more relevant, all five teaching roles: social interaction, instructional design, technology use, learning assessment and learning processes support, are relevant predictors of the adoption of this conception of teaching by online instructors.

Badia, Antoni, Julio Meneses, Sergi Fàbregues, and Carles Sigalés. "Examining the influence of ICT-related school and teacher conditions in teachers' perceived effectiveness of digital technology." In First UOC International Research Symposium. Barcelona (Spain), 2013. Abstractuoc_sym_ict-related-factors_2013.pdf

Background. Little is known about the factors that affect teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of technology for teaching and learning in schools. This state of affairs is problematic since we know that teachers’ perceptions have a high impact on their teaching practices. Instructional benefits are defined here as the contribution of digital technology in several aspects of curriculum development such as the formulation of learning goals, the development of curriculum content and learning activities, the allocation of educational resources, and the adoption of new methods of assessment.

Objective. To develop and test a model of the factors affecting primary and secondary school teachers’ perceptions about the instructional benefits of digital technology in their teaching practices.

Method. This study used survey data gathered from 702 teachers from 356 primary and secondary schools in Spain. A three stage hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed, testing for separate effects and controlling for the other variables included in the model, to assess the contribution of socio-demographic and school-level information, ICT-related school conditions, and ICT-related teacher conditions.

Findings. Hierarchical multiple regression of teachers’ perceived effectiveness of digital technology shows that: a) the teaching area is the only contributing factor among the socio-demographics and the school-level information measures considered; b) ICT-related school conditions (i.e., ICT policy, ICT infrastructure, computer to student ratio, and ICT support) do not improve the explained variance of the model; c) ICT-related teacher conditions (i.e., digital literacy, education ICT training, and frequency of Internet access) are the best predictors among the measures included.

Conclusions. These findings suggest that an increase of ICT knowledge and use within each teaching area would make teachers perceiving more educational benefits associated to technology.